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Bladder Cancer - Child

To view this article in the new Rare Cancers Australia Knowledgebase, click here 

Definition of bladder cancer:

Cancer that forms in tissues of the bladder (the organ that stores urine). Most bladder cancers are transitional cell carcinomas (cancer that begins in cells that normally make up the inner lining of the bladder). Other types include squamous cell carcinoma (cancer that begins in thin, flat cells) and adenocarcinoma (cancer that begins in cells that make and release mucus and other fluids). The cells that form squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma develop in the inner lining of the bladder as a result of chronic irritation and inflammation. 

Bladder Cancer

Bladder cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the tissues of the bladder. The bladder is a hollow organ in the lower part of the abdomen. It is shaped like a small balloon and has a muscle wall that allows it to get bigger or smaller. The bladder stores urine until it is passed out of the body. Urine is the liquid waste that is made by the kidneys when they clean the blood. The urine passes from the two kidneys into the bladder through two tubes called ureters. When the bladder is emptied during urination, the urine goes from the bladder to the outside of the body through another tube called the urethra.

Anatomy of the female urinary system; drawing shows a front view of the right and left kidneys, the ureters,  urethra, and bladder filled with urine. The inside of the left kidney shows the renal pelvis. An inset shows the renal tubules and urine. The spine, adrenal glands, and uterus are also shown. 

Anatomy of the female urinary system showing the kidneys, adrenal glands, ureters, bladder, and urethra. Urine is made in the renal tubules and collects in the renal pelvis of each kidney. The urine flows from the kidneys through the ureters to the bladder. The urine is stored in the bladder until it leaves the body through the urethra.

The most common type of bladder cancer is transitional cell cancer. Squamous cell and other more aggressive types of bladder cancer are less common.

Risk Factors, Symptoms, and Diagnostic and Staging Tests

In teenagers who were treated with certain anticancer drugs for leukemia, the risk of bladder cancer is increased.

Bladder cancer may cause any of the following signs and symptoms. Check with your child’s doctor if you see any of the following problems in your child:

  • Blood in the urine (slightly rusty to bright red in color).
  • Frequent urination or feeling the need to urinate without being able to do so.
  • Pain during urination.
  • Lower back pain.

Other conditions that are not bladder cancer may also cause the same symptoms.

Tests to diagnose and stage bladder cancer may include the following:

  • Physical exam and history.
  • CT scan.
  • Ultrasound of the bladder.
  • Biopsy.

Other tests used to diagnose bladder cancer include the following:

  • Urinalysis: A test to check the color of urine and its contents, such as sugar, protein, red blood cells, and white blood cells.
  • Urine cytology: Examination of urine under a microscope to check for abnormal cells.
  • Cystoscopy: A procedure to look inside the bladder and urethra to check for abnormal areas. A cystoscope is inserted through the urethra into the bladder. A cystoscope is a thin, tube-like instrument with a light and a lens for viewing. It may also have a tool to remove tissue samples, which are checked under a microscope for signs of cancer.

Prognosis

In children, bladder cancer is usually low grade (not likely to spread) and the prognosis is usually good following surgery to remove the tumor.

Treatment

Treatment for bladder cancer in children is usually transurethral resection (TUR). This is a surgical procedure to remove tissue from the bladder using a resectoscope inserted into the bladder through the urethra. A resectoscope is a thin, tube-like instrument with a light, a lens for viewing, and a tool to remove tissue and burn away any remaining tumor cells. Tissue samples are checked under a microscope for signs of cancer.

For more information on Childhood Bladder Cancer click here

This link is to the National Cancer Institute (NCI) cancer website in the United States. There may be references to drugs and clinical trials that are not available here in Australia.

For clinical trials that may be available for this cancer in Australia, click here 

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