Scholars from University of California, San
Francisco (UC San Francisco) have found that people who consume E-cigarettes
and tobacco product are more likely to develop oral cancer, a U.S. non-profit
advocating oral health said over the weekend.
The International Association for Dental
Research (IADR) said UC San Francisco researchers Benjamin Chaffee and Neal
Benowitz, the co-author of a paper on nicotine and carcinogen exposure from
consumption of tobacco product, examined the risks of people who are exposed to
known carcinogen resulting from the use of different tobacco products, alone or
They assessed a national sample of 32,320
U.S. adults collected between 2013 and 2014, who provided urine specimens for
analysis of tobacco-specific nitrosamines (TSNAs), N’-nitrosonornicotine (NNN),
a known oral and esophageal carcinogen, and
4-(methynitrosamino)-1-(3)-pyridyle-1-butanol (NNAL), a metabolite of lung
carcinogen (NNK), as well as total nicotine equivalents.
Among the participants, 48 percent are
female and 61 percent non-Hispanic white aged from 18 years old to 90 years
old, with a median age of 35 years.
More than 6,000 of them were characterized
according to use of combustible products such as cigarettes, cigars, waterpipe,
pipes, marijuana-containing cigar, smokeless products including moist snuff,
chewing tobacco, snus, and e-cigarette, as well as nicotine replacement
The researchers found that all tobacco use
categories showed elevated nicotine and TSNA concentrations compared to
Smokeless tobacco users have the highest
level of TSNA exposure, whether they use one tobacco product or together with
other product types.
The study discovered that the vast majority
of non-cigarette tobacco users are exposed to carcinogen levels that are likely
to put them at substantial risk, just as much as exclusive cigarette smokers
The original version of this article appeared here.